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Post Info TOPIC: Between Two Heroes: Rizal and Bonifacio


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Between Two Heroes: Rizal and Bonifacio


Over a century since two heroes paid the ultimate price for birthing a sovereign nation, the majority of its present day citizens know José Rizal far better than they know Andres Bonifacio.

José Protacio Rizal became the primary hero template to four Filipino generations post 1896, while the little to be learned on Andres Bonifacio in school ossified into a static image from longer and longer ago an early member with no speaking lines in the reformist La Liga Filipina; organizer and leader of the Katipunan that cut through long-standing debate on reform versus himagsikan; the one who called for the tearing up of cedulas in the untimely beginning of revolution and the leader of its first battles (and defeats) by the Spanish army.

Most everyone in that time seemed to have something to hide about Bonifacio. If the American colonial government was wary of fanning smoldering embers of a stolen revolution when it reduced his biography to two pages beside Rizals four in early history school books, Filipino guilt over fratricide seems an equally important reason why Rizal, who died by foreign hands, overshadowed Bonifacio from the starting line.

This is the article.


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Victor

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Rizal was the brain. Boni was the will and the brawn. One wouldn't do without the other. And let's not forget all the other Filipino heroes.

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Pepa

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Another reason why not much is known about Andres compared to Rizal that is not addressed in the article is that Rizal was a sort of genius who stood out early in life and caught the attention of everyone. He was also a prolific writer. And his contemporaries all considered him the leader of the revolution. So his life is well documented.

On the other hand, Andres was the young man who answered Rizal's call for a revolution. He came out of nowhere, from obscurity into instant fame. And he disappeared just as fast. While his military campaign was a failure and there is little known of his life, and there have been questions as to the accuracy of some historians' portrayal of him, he is well loved.

In fact, I think to most Filipinos, Andres is at least as big as Rizal. Their contribution to the Filipino was just different. Rizal was the vision and Andres symbolizes the will. And one cannot be a hero without the other, and without the other revolutionaries as well.

And the UP oblation, it is Andres, I swear!


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dino

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The UP oblation does appear to symbolize Andres Bonifacio. It was inspired by 2 stanzas in Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios (My Last Farewell) which calls for militant and selfless sacrifice and service to the country. The verses particularly mention fighting in battlefields... And Andres was the young man who answered Rizal's call.

It is possible that there was some intentional obfuscation as to who the statue really was and its inspiration as it was built during the American colonial period. The colonizers, of course, wanted to bury the militant Andres and would have censored same, if they had known. And the wiki's description of Rizal's poem is inaccurate. It omits the militancy that Rizal called for. It only mentions selfless sacrifice and devotion to the motherland portion. And this may be the line that was officially given to the American authorities then.

I did not do any research though on this. So I could be completely wrong. It's just something to think about or for someone else to research and write about.

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Well, given that the inspiration for the statue that is Andres was inspired by Rizal's Mi Ultimo Adios, then the oblation is, in essence, a combination of Rizal and Bonifacio.

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Nakakainis naman si Rizal at Bonifacio. Mga anti-Catholic. Mas gusto ko tuloy si Aguinaldo. Kundi dahil sa kanya Hudeyo na ang Pinas. Pero bakit niya pinatay si Hen. Luna?

-- Edited by adidas at 19:45, 2008-07-15

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Not cute, Adidas. Aguinaldo's Catholic religiosity and anti-semitism, typical of the Don Tiagos and Dona Victorinas, and his ruthlessness and insatiable lust for power, are character flaws to be ashamed of. And it is no wonder Filipinos do not give him the admiration and respect that otherwise ought to have been accorded to him. He should be at the level of Rizal and Bonifacio and the other heroes, but he isn't.

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You may be wrong about Emilio Aguinaldo being an anti-semite, Josh.

I gather you got that opinion from Telesforo Canseco's "Historia de la insurrección Filipina en Cavite." Reacting to the move for the expulsion of priests from San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias), Canseco claims someone as saying "Cung umalis and mga pareng Castila, sinong matitirang pari? Ang mga Tagalog? Cung ganoon ay caramihan natin ay maguiguing judio (If the Spanish priests leave, who will be left? Tagalogs (Bonifaco's revolutionary faction)? That being the case, many people will become Jews)."

Telesforo Canseco was a known minion of the Catholic church, and his religious bigotry is not necessarily representative of Aguinaldo or the Caviteno.

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However, I agree with you re Aguinaldo's egregious character flaws having disastrous consequences on the fate of the Filipino revolution. His insatiable lust for power led him to conspire to have his rivals to power eliminated. The assassination of by far the most popular Filipino revolutionary leader albeit a poor military strategist - Bonifacio - and the most capable and greatest general - Luna greatly demoralized the revolutionary movement. And, as if those cowardly acts were not enough, Aguinaldo would readily pledge allegiance to America. Even Apolinario Mabini, a cripple, had more courage than he and did not accept American money.

The Assassination of Andres Bonifacio and Antonio Luna
Excerpts from Julio Nakpil's 'Apuntes Sobre La Revolucion Filipina' (Notes on the Philippine Revolution)


Page 30 'The Death of Bonifacio'


The Bonifacio brothers were accused of promoting a counter revolution to overthrow the power of Aguinaldo.

Unfortunately this slanderous accusation of Aguinaldo and his partisans was very common in Cavite. Andres Bonifacio challenged to a duel Emilio Aguinaldo to settle their differences, saying to him: "If you are offended by my behavior, name your seconds, hour, and place!"

The only reply of Aguinaldo was to send a company under the command of Colonel Ingtong (Agapito Monzon) which found the Bonifacio brothers breakfasting.

The Bonifacios asked them where they were going and invited them to join them at breakfast, to which they replied that they had just finished the same, and that they were going reconnoitering.

Then the Bonifacio brothers, unaware of what was going to happen to them, continued eating, their firearms being far from the reach of their hands. Aguinaldo's men thereupon began to seize the firearms of the Bonifacio men and when theY became aware of what was happening they were already disarmed.

Nevertheless, there was, a struggle, but very unequal. According to the eyewitnesses, the one who stabbed A. Bonifacio in the neck was Lazaro Makapagal.

The Bonifacios were also accused of drawing away soldiers from the Revolution in Cavite, the plan of Bonifacio being to continue the Revolution by joining his forces to those of Emilio Jacinto and the undersigned (i.e. Julio Nakpil) who were operating in the provinces of Manila, Laguna, and Morong.

It was an act of banditry: The jewels and money of the families of the murdered men were confiscated like war booty.


Chapter VII, page 103 'The Death of General Luna'


(D)riven by his patriotic fervor, he (General Antonio Luna) did not conceal his desire to be the head of the cabinet with the portfolio of war to prevent the autonomists or pacifists from controlling the government of the republic.

They slandered him of wishing to wrest the presidency from Emilio Aguinaldo, and for that purpose they invited him to enter the rattrap of Kabanatuan to enable the very ones whom he had disarmed for cowardice in different war actions to deal him the deathblow. Do not lose sight of the fact that the one who invited him (i.e. Emilio Aguinaldo) to a conference absented himself, which was a cowardly stratagem.

When General A. Luna was dastardly assassinated on the stairs of the Convent of Kabanatuan and already fallen on the ground, the mother of Emilio Aguinaldo looked out the window and asked: "Ano, humihinga pa ba?" (Is he still breathing?)

The Spanish soldier-prisoners who witnessed this iniquitous assassination said: "We admired the valor and intrepidity of General Luna who, tormented with shots and already fallen to the ground, could still shout: "Cowardly Cavitenios !"

History condemns these barbaric acts, He (E, Aguinaldo) also gave orders to assassinate the undersigned to Generals Severino Taino and Pio del Pilar who did not obey the said orders for considering them infamous, unjust, and without any motive, whatever. It was nothing more than a mean and despicable order.

General Pio del Pilar himself told me this in his barracks at San Pedro Makati, when Manila was under blockade.


Pages 157 and 158 'The Capture of Aguinaldo'


Emilio Aguinaldo's surrender to the American's was a cowardly act. There was no doubt that he coveted the presidency. He surrendered for fear that others more competent than he would occupy the post of president of tne Republic.

Had he fought with his captors, regardless of whether he succumbed so that he might be considered a hero, at least to vindicate his crimes, by this time we would be admiring a monument to the second hero of the Philippines, unlike what he did delivering himself as prisoner and afterward taking an oath of allegiance to the American flag.

The crimes he committed against Andres Bonifacio and Antonio Luna, and his attempt to assassinate the undersigned (i.e. Julio Nakpil) should be condemned by history, and Universal Freemasonry ought to expel him and declare him a spurious son. The coward finds many dangers where none exist!

March, 1897 - A persistent rumor circulated that Andres Bonifacio was paid by the friars to promote the rebellion against Spain and also it was said he was sanguinary. Is this the work of his enemies to discredit him?

Emilio Aguinaldo censured by those from Cavite. On account of the abuses and immoralities of his soldiers, such as robberies and rape of married women as well as single, many complaints were brought to E. Aguinaldo; but, instead of punishing the culprits, he would reply invariably: "Please be patient because we do not pay our soldiers."

Among the despicable ones was a Major surnamed Ritual who boastfully recounted with the greatest pleasure and effrontery the following: He and two of his soldiers went up a house in one of the towns of Cavite finding there two sisters, single and pretty. As they would not accede to their satyric de sires, he kicked one of them several times on the hips, and when the other protested and shouted for help, then Ritual himself hit them with the butt of his gun until they fell on the floor; and once the two sisters had fainted, they succeeded to satisfy their vile appetite.

Many of these barbarous acts occurred in Cavite principally, inasmuch as they were left unpunished. Under Andres Bonifacio and Antonio Luna these cases were severely punished. Ritual related this in the presence of Atilano Sta. Ana, two Spanish soldiers who were deserters, and the undersigned in the town of Cainta. I was very indignant. Thanks that I was able to refrain from shooting him with my revolver for fear of committing murder.

Finally, Emilio Aguinaldo ought to give an example of national solidarity. Considering those murders committed by him on the precious lives of Bonifacio and Luna and others their indignant relatives as well as their friends and the people in general did not rise against him for the sake of national unity.

His ambition to occupy the presidency is fully demonstrated when General L. Wood promised it to him (deceiving him for his own purposes) when we would' be granted our independence'. It is a common belief that this post would be occupied by one who held it during the Revolution, and for this reason he persists in winning sympathy, using as an instrument the Veterans of the Revolution, endeavoring to establish throughout the Archipelago Commandancias Departamentales (Departmental Commands.)

Another reproach against Aguinaldo was his acceptance of P12,OOO as annual life-pension so that he is already paid for his services during the Revolution.

He himself destroyed his work due to his excessive ambition for grandeur and riches, and the like. Had he renounced this great amount in favor of the invalid veterans of the Revolution. he would have performed an act of patriotism and charity.

I swear before God and before History that everything related in these notes is the truth and I entreat the historian not to publish this until after my death.

(Signed) JULIO NAKPIL - Year 1925

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Gusto ko si Rizal, Bonifacio at Erap...

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Pero di mo naman masabi na walang malaking nabigay si Aguinaldo sa atin. Nanalo din ang pinoy laban sa espanya sa kanyang pamumuno. Natalo lang tayo sa Kano.

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Mabini was, next to Emilio Aguinaldo, the most powerful man in the First Republic. He wrote about Aguinaldo over a century ago.

To sum it up, the Revolution failed because it was badly led; because its leader won his post by reprehensible rather than meritorious acts; because instead of supporting the men most useful to the people, he made them useless out of jealousy.

To continue, go to or click http://pinas.activeboard.com/index.spark?forumID=117200&p=3&topicID=19296796.

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Aguinaldo would run for president when America gave us back our freedom, but he would lose out to Quezon, an indictment of the Filipino people against him. His last words as he lay dying -- Bayan ko patawarin mo ko! So, guys, lay off!! The guy suffered enough.

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